Mahatma Gandhi: Father name,Story,Death, Religion,Family, Fame

Mahatma Gandhi: Father name,Story,Death, Religion,Family, Fame

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, better known as Mahatma Gandhi, was a pivotal figure in India’s struggle for independence and a global icon of non-violent resistance. His philosophy of satyagraha, or non-violent civil disobedience, inspired movements for civil rights and freedom across the world. This article delves into the life, career, achievements, and lasting legacy of Mahatma Gandhi, exploring how his ideas and actions continue to influence social and political movements today.

 

Early Life and Background Of Mahatma Gandhi 
Born on October 2, 1869, in Porbandar, a coastal town in present-day Gujarat, India, Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi was born into a Hindu merchant caste family. His father, Karamchand Gandhi, served as the diwan (chief minister) of Porbandar state, and his mother, Putlibai, was a deeply religious woman who influenced young Gandhi’s spiritual development.

Gandhi was married at the age of 13 to Kasturbai Makhanji, a marriage that would last his lifetime and play a significant role in his personal and political journey.

 

Education and Early Career Mahatma Gandhi
Gandhi’s formal education began in Porbandar and continued in Rajkot, where his family moved in 1876. In 1888, at the age of 18, he left for London to study law at University College London. This experience exposed him to new ideas and cultures, shaping his worldview and future philosophy.

After being called to the bar in June 1891, Gandhi returned to India and attempted to establish a law practice in Bombay, which proved unsuccessful. In 1893, he accepted a year-long contract to work for an Indian firm in Natal, South Africa, a decision that would profoundly impact his life and career.

 

Experience of Mahatma in South Africa 
Gandhi’s time in South Africa, which extended from 1893 to 1914, was transformative. It was here that he first encountered institutional racism and began to develop his philosophy of non-violent resistance. Key events during this period included:

1. Train Incident:
In 1893, Gandhi was thrown off a train in Pietermaritzburg after refusing to move from the first-class compartment, despite having a valid ticket. This incident crystallized his determination to fight racial discrimination.

2. Natal Indian Congress:
In 1894, Gandhi helped establish the Natal Indian Congress to fight discrimination against Indian traders in Natal.

3. Boer War and Zulu Rebellion:
Gandhi organized an Indian Ambulance Corps during the Boer War (1899-1902) and the Zulu Rebellion (1906), demonstrating his belief in supporting the British Empire while simultaneously resisting its unjust laws.

4. Satyagraha in South Africa:
In 1906, Gandhi organized his first campaign of satyagraha, or non-violent resistance, to protest the Transvaal Asiatic Registration Act. This campaign lasted until 1914 and resulted in significant concessions from the South African government.

Return to India and Entry into National Politics:
Gandhi returned to India in 1915, where he quickly became involved in local struggles and gradually emerged as a national leader. Key moments in his early Indian career included:

1. Champaran and Kheda Satyagraha:
In 1917 and 1918, Gandhi led successful satyagraha campaigns in Champaran and Kheda, advocating for the rights of farmers and peasants.

2. Non-Cooperation Movement:
In 1920, Gandhi launched the Non-Cooperation Movement against British rule, calling for a boycott of British goods and institutions.

3. Salt March:
In 1930, Gandhi led the famous Salt March to protest the British monopoly on salt production. This act of civil disobedience sparked a wider civil disobedience movement across India.

 

Key Achievements of Mahatma Gandhi 
Gandhi’s achievements were numerous and far-reaching, both in India and globally:

1. Indian Independence Movement:
Gandhi’s leadership was instrumental in India achieving independence from British rule in 1947. His methods of non-violent resistance and civil disobedience galvanized the Indian population and put pressure on the British government.

2. Promotion of Non-Violence:
Gandhi’s philosophy of non-violent resistance, or ahimsa, has influenced civil rights movements around the world, including the African American Civil Rights Movement led by Martin Luther King Jr.

3. Upliftment of Untouchables:
Gandhi worked tirelessly to improve the status of the “untouchables” (now known as Dalits) in Indian society, calling them “Harijans” or “children of God.”

4. Promotion of Swadeshi:
Gandhi advocated for economic self-sufficiency through the use of indigenous products and technologies, symbolized by his use of the spinning wheel.

5. Interfaith Harmony:
Throughout his life, Gandhi worked to promote harmony between India’s Hindu and Muslim communities, often fasting to stop communal violence.

6. Women’s Rights:
Gandhi encouraged women to participate in the independence movement and advocated for their equal rights in Indian society.

Philosophy and Teachings of Mahatma Gandhi 

Gandhi’s philosophy, often referred to as Gandhism, encompassed various aspects:

1. Satyagraha:
The practice of non-violent resistance, based on the power of truth and the need to convert, not coerce, an opponent.

2. Ahimsa:
The principle of non-violence towards all living things, extended to include non-violence in thought and action.

3. Swaraj:
The concept of self-rule or self-governance, applied both at the individual and national level.

4. Sarvodaya:
The idea of “universal uplift” or “progress for all,” emphasizing the interconnectedness of all people and the need for inclusive development.

5. Simple Living:
Gandhi advocated for a simple, self-sufficient lifestyle, rejecting materialism and consumerism.

 

Assassination of Mahatma Gandhi

January 30, 1948, Mahatma Gandhi was assassinated in New Delhi by Nathuram Godse, a Hindu nationalist who opposed Gandhi’s tolerance towards Muslims. Gandhi was on his way to a prayer meeting when Godse shot him three times at point-blank range. His last words were said to be “Hey Ram” (Oh God).

Gandhi’s assassination sent shockwaves through India and the world, leading to an outpouring of grief and a renewed commitment to his principles of non-violence and communal harmony.

 

Legacy and Global Impact
Mahatma Gandhi’s legacy continues to inspire and influence people around the world:

1. Non-Violent Movements:
Gandhi’s methods have inspired numerous non-violent resistance movements, including the Civil Rights Movement in the United States, the anti-apartheid movement in South Africa, and various democracy movements around the world.

2. United Nations International Day of Non-Violence:
The United Nations General Assembly established October 2 (Gandhi’s birthday) as the International Day of Non-Violence in 2007.

3. Environmental Movements:
Gandhi’s emphasis on simple living and sustainability has influenced modern environmental movements.

4. Conflict Resolution:
Gandhi’s principles of non-violent conflict resolution continue to be studied and applied in various fields, including international relations and community development.

5. Symbol of Peace:
Gandhi remains a global symbol of peace, with his image and ideas frequently invoked in discussions of social justice and human rights.

 

FAQs:

1. Why is Mahatma Gandhi called the “Father of the Nation” in India?

Mahatma Gandhi is called the “Father of the Nation” in India because of his crucial role in leading the Indian independence movement against British colonial rule.

His philosophy of non-violent resistance, commitment to truth and justice, and tireless efforts to unite Indians across religious and caste lines were instrumental in achieving India’s independence.

The title “Father of the Nation” was first used for Gandhi by Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose in his radio address from Singapore in 1944, and it has since been widely adopted as a mark of respect for Gandhi’s paramount contribution to the creation of independent India.

2. What was the significance of Gandhi’s Salt March?

The Salt March, also known as the Dandi March or Salt Satyagraha, was a significant act of non-violent civil disobedience led by Gandhi in 1930. The march was a protest against the British salt monopoly in colonial India. Gandhi and his followers marched 240 miles from Sabarmati Ashram to Dandi, Gujarat, to produce salt from seawater, defying British law.

This act of civil disobedience inspired millions of Indians to join the independence movement and garnered international attention to India’s struggle for freedom. The Salt March demonstrated the power of non-violent protest and became a pivotal moment in the Indian independence movement.

3. How did Gandhi’s philosophy influence other world leaders?

Gandhi’s philosophy of non-violent resistance and civil disobedience has influenced numerous world leaders and social movements. Martin Luther King Jr., the leader of the African American Civil Rights Movement, drew direct inspiration from Gandhi’s methods and visited India to study his approach.

Nelson Mandela, in his fight against apartheid in South Africa, was also influenced by Gandhian principles. Other leaders and movements inspired by Gandhi include Cesar Chavez and the United Farm Workers movement in the United States, the Solidarity movement in Poland, and the pro-democracy movement in Myanmar led by Aung San Suu Kyi.

4. What were Gandhi’s views on caste and untouchability?

Gandhi was a strong opponent of the caste system and untouchability in India. He believed that the practice of untouchability was a blot on Hinduism and worked tirelessly to eradicate it. Gandhi referred to the untouchables as “Harijans” (children of God) and advocated for their full integration into Indian society.

He promoted inter-caste marriages and the opening of temples to all Hindus regardless of caste. However, some critics argue that while Gandhi opposed untouchability, he did not go far enough in challenging the caste system as a whole.

Nonetheless, his efforts significantly contributed to raising awareness about caste discrimination and paved the way for future reforms.

5. How is Gandhi’s legacy remembered and celebrated today?

Gandhi’s legacy is remembered and celebrated in numerous ways around the world. In India, his birthday (October 2) is a national holiday called Gandhi Jayanti, marked by prayer services and tributes.

The United Nations has declared this date as the International Day of Non-Violence. Gandhi’s image appears on Indian currency notes, and statues of him can be found in many countries.

His ashrams and key sites associated with his life have been preserved as museums and memorial sites. Gandhi’s principles continue to be studied in schools and universities worldwide, and his methods of non-violent resistance continue to inspire social and political movements. Many institutions and awards bearing his name promote values of peace, non-violence, and social justice.

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